The Royal Oak, Aspley Heath
In about 1824, one George Goodall enclosed about ¾ of an acre on the Heath, and a little later built himself a cottage there, which became 20 Church Road, but he was astute enough to build it on just one side of the frontage of the property. He was one of the ‘squatters’ of Aspley Heath, as he had no right to the land, but after he had occupied it long enough, and got others to swear oaths that he had held it, for perhaps years longer than he actually had, it legally became his. Fortunately, a number of the deeds for this property are deposited at the Bedfordshire and Luton Archives and Records Service in the Greene King collection.
George had been ‘on the parish’ in his time, meaning he was supported with parish money as he didn't earn enough to support his family. In 1827 he was given a week’s pay to assist him building his house, and later in the year drew 2/6 and 3/6 a week. On another occasion he was given a bit-saw, to help him in his work and keep him from drawing more relief from the parish.
After his death, his son John inherited the property and lived there with his widowed Mother. After his marriage, in 1850 he built himself another cottage (18 Church Road) adjoining his late father's. The cottage was a simple design of two living rooms, each about 12ft. by 11ft. with two corresponding bedrooms over, and resting on the back was a timber-built barn, 17ft. by 13ft., while 40 yards away up the garden was a boarded stable and the family closet. Other rooms have since been added on the lower side. There was a large barn in rear and in the back garden a range of stabling, long since pulled down. The water supply was from a well in the lower front corner of the garden.
To create a proper title to his property, and obtain £180 mortgage from the Woburn Benefit Building Society, in June 1853 John Goodall swore an affidavit that his father had built the property in about 1826, and had lived there till he died about 1839. His mother then lived in the house, until she died in in 1851. Before she died, John had built another cottage next door, on the same land. He mentions there was a dispute about the ownership his father’s cottage after his father death, but that he has never paid rent to anyone for it. This was probably the Duke of Bedford trying to reclaim the land that was originally his. On the same day as his affidavit, Thomas Keens, bricklayer of Woburn Sands, also swore that he remembered George Goodall throwing up a bank around some land in 1824, and building a cottage two years later. Keens’ father had also erected a house nearby, by fencing off the Dukes land and building a cottage. He recalled that some years ago, there had been some dispute about the local cottages, and one had been pulled down, but his and Goodall’s were left alone.
Three years later, Goodall bought land behind his cottage from Gabriel Ireland for £12. Gabriel too had to state he had had undisturbed occupation of the premises for 30-plus years. Goodall gave the cottage his father had built to his sister, who was married to John Sollom. Sollom, like the Goodalls, was a sawyer by trade.
Goodall owned most of the land now occupied by St Michaels churchyard, and had four acres fronting the top of Church Road, which was later the hockey ground of the Knoll school. He also had land in Aspley Guise, and became a timber merchant with a yard near Woburn Sands Station. The money the parish had spent on a simple saw for his father George was money well spent!
Goodall took a further mortgage from George Woods of Oakley, a keeper for The Duke of Bedford, for £120 in 1860. I would be surprised the Duke was involved directly in lending money to the people who had fenced off his land and effectively stolen it, unless he thought the squatters would default on their loans and he would be able to reclaim the land.
Goodall took another mortgage for £400 on New Year’s Day 1862, from Elizabeth Platt of Bedford. This much larger amount was secured on all Goodall’s property and land on Aspley Heath. It looks like he was able to pay this off by 1866, but a year later he re-mortgages again, to John Thomas Green, a Woburn solicitor, for £1000. Crucially, this included the right for Green to sell on the properties. £1000 is a large amount of money for 1867, but Goodall went back for further loans over the next 2 years months for more than £2500. Was this to start his timber yard at Woburn Sands Station?
All this financial borrowing and mortgaging obviously attracted some adverse comments locally as a noticed appeared in the Northants Mercury in February 1864:
“I, Henry Turney of Husborne Crawley, in Bedfordshire, hereby acknowledge that the statements and accusations made by me in January last reflecting on the credit and solvency of John Goodall, of Woburn Sands, in Buckinghamshire, Timber Dealer, were untrue and without any foundation whatsoever and I express my sorrow and apologize for having made such statements and accusations. Dated 11th Day Feb. 1864”
John Goodall remained in his cottage until about 1868-69, when he sold it, along with the other pieces of land he had acquired, to John Green, the Woburn lawyer. It was apparently Green who obtained the first licence. John Goodall never appears as a licensee, and the deeds show it was only licenced after he sold it. (He did, however, later become owner of The Station Hotel). Arthur Parker, the late village historian, believed Goodall may have been running an unofficial beer trade from the cottage as a side line. The trade probably arose from the demands of the sandpit, woodsmen and Fullers earth workers, returning from work, tired and thirsty.
Newland wasn’t above borrowing on the inn either. In 1877 he secured £1200 on the Royal Oak and The Dukes Head, Aspley Guise, from Edward Rose, a Bedford draper, and then over £13,000 from Charles Powell of Newport Pagnell, against a large number of the breweries properties, notwithstanding the mortgage already on the Royal Oak and Dukes Head.
At the next census in 1881, Ingle was still there, with his wife Rebeckha. He was 70 and she 71. There were also six lodgers and travellers in the house. It must have been a tight squeeze!
An edition of the Northants Mercury in November 1889 reported that the licence was transferred to a John Clarke, but it does not record who from.
At the 1891 census, Frederick Brawn was landlord, with no lodgers in the house, but I doubt they had room, as they had seven children. Frederick helped make ends meet by also working as a gardener. He was originally from Northamptonshire, and most of his children were born in Yardley Gobion, Cosgove and Grendon.
When William Pritzler Newland sat up a new Limited Company in 1897, (Newland and Nash) his brewery in Lurke Street, Bedford and 59 freehold pubs, six under copy hold and 15 leaseholds were also transferred. Locally, this included the freeholds of The Dukes Head in Aspley Guise, The Wheatsheaf in Wavendon and The Royal Oak in Aspley Heath, with cottage adjoining including skittle shed (tenant now John Wilson), as well as the lease of The Weathercock, Woburn Sands, and just over 2 acres of land beside it (Gravel Pit Close) This had been leased from Sir Henry Hoare in 1895, and the landlord was Frederick Roberts. This coindided with their looking for a new tenant for The Oak. From the BedsTimes, 21st February, 1891:
"ROYAL OAK BEER HOUSE, at Woburn Sands, TO BE LET, with early possession. Large Garden. Apply, Newland & Nash, Lurke Street Brewery, Bedford."
In November 1894, there is a news report of a quarrel between Frank Elmer and Richard Seal, described as a Beerhouse keeper of Aspley Heath, over some rabbits. Elmer and Seal were thrown out of the Fir Tree Inn, with Joseph Griffen being given a black-eye in the process and Seal offered to fight Elmer for £5, but Elmer refused. Both men were convicted, with Seal receiving a larger fine as he was a beerhouse keeper who should have known better! We know he was the Royal Oak licensee, as the following Luton Times and Advertiser report from 1st April 1898 confirms it:
“The Owner Found - The pony and cart which was found straying on the highway by the lamplighter one day last week has now been claimed by Mr Seal of Newport Pagnell, who at one time was the landlord of the Royal Oak, Aspley Heath. How the animal could possibly have strayed so great a distance unobserved is a mystery.”
In 1901, the landlord was Joseph Wilson (61), with his wife Sarah (63). They were from Wellington in Salop, and had one daughter, Alice (22) with them. The 1903 Licensing Return stated that the house was clean and in fairly good repair, but it still only had a beer licence. The Wilsons stayed some time, from 1897 to 1910.
A year before the 1911 Census, the Wilson left to be replaced by John Cowell. He and his wife Mary had five children., one of whom left Woburn Sands for a new life in Canada in March 1911. They still managed to squeeze one lodger in, Thomas Clarke. Cowell was also a stationary engine driver, possibly getting work both agricultural and at the local fullers earth works, although the main firm locally had folded in 1900.
Cowell was still landlord in 1927, when the inn was valued under the terms of the Rating Valuation Act of 1925. Every piece of land and property was inspected to determine the rates to be paid on it. At that time the Royal Oak consisted of a tap room, kitchen, private living room and scullery downstairs, with a cellar beneath. The inn must have been extended by this time, as by now upstairs there were five bedrooms and outside a washhouse and WC and coal barn. Trade consisted of about three barrels of beer and three dozen bottles of minerals per week. Rent was £12 per annum. The valuer noted: "a lovely little green patch in front", and that the tenant "Keeps house very clean & I think some personallity here".
The Cowells stayed until 1933, their replacement being his own son-in law, Percy Radley. From the Bedfordshire Times and Independent, 12th May. 1933:
"WOBURN SANDS Mr. John Cowell, who for the past twenty three years has been landlord of the "The Royal Oak", Aspley Heath, is retiring this week. has been a resident in the district for about thirty years, and as landlord he has always been much esteemed by his patrons and friends. The “Royal Oak” is a picturesque place, well known for its frontage of beautiful turf, which Mr. Cowell has always kept in good condition by mowing about three times week. Mr. and Mrs. Cowell are retiring to live in a house in the newly-developed Downham Road, and are to be succeeded at the Royal Oak by Mr. and Mrs, P. Radley, their son-in-law and daughter."
He stayed 16 years till 1949, when Alexander Carlile took over. After a short tenure, William Harris took the pub in 1953. The rest is modern times.